The book gives a complete account of the biogeography, animal and plant ecology and natural conservation in Turkmenistan. This region within the former USSR borders on Iran and Afghanistan and includes both deserts and arid mountains. Turkmenistan, and especially the mountains of Kopetdagh, is an extremely important region for historical biogeography, as a corridor and filter between the Mediterranean region, the Middle East and the great deserts of Asia. This remote area was studied exclusively by Soviet scientists and all information was published in Russian. This book is the first to bring data on the biogeography and conservation of Turkmenistan to the general scientific community.